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                 ISSN: 1582-5388

 

 

 

 

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Evaluating health promotion - progress, problems and solutions

Elena Lungu

In the past 20 years there has been an enormous growth in the volume of research which is relevance to health promotion. This expanding research base has advanced knowledge and improved understanding of the determinants of health in populations. There are many different interpretations of what represents “value” from a health promotion program (1). Among the perspectives reflected in the literature is that of the population who are to benefit from health promotion actions. Defining success in health promotion concerns assessment to which an action achieves a valued outcome. Also, there is value placed on the process by which these outcomes are achieved (2). The Ottawa Charter identifies both valued outcomes and valued process in health promotion. The Charter defines health promotion as the process of enabling people to exert control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health. Health promotion is an activity directed towards enabling people to take action. Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Health Patterns and Determinants

 

Lead exposure in mothers and children from an industrial region of Poland: an assessment of micronuclei using fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Does lead contribute to increased micronuclei levels?

Natalie P Wyatt, Lucyna Kapka, Adolf Baumgartner, Ewa Siwinska, Danuta Mielzynska, Lisbeth E Knudsen , Diana Anderson

Abstract. Aims. To investigate the susceptibility to micronuclei in lead-exposed mother and child groups employing fluorescence in situ hybridisation on micronuclei using pan-centromeric DNA probes (MN-FISH assay). Materials and Methods. DOP-PCR (degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction)was used to generate a pan-centromeric DNA probe. After labelling, the probe was applied to slides with micronuclei smears, allowing the micronuclei to be examined for the presence of centromeric signals. Results. Nine year–old children (n=11) had a significantly lower (p<0.01) level of micronuclei (both with, and without centromeric signals) in comparison with mothers (n=11), and a significantly lower level of centromere negative micronuclei was observed in the children (p<0.01). There was also a lower non-significant level of centromere positive micronuclei induced in comparison with centromere negative micronuclei. Conclusions. The higher rate of micronuclei induced in mothers may arise through lead-exposure and increasing age, and the micronuclei induced arise more from chromosomal fragmentation, than chromosomal malsegregation.

Key words: Lead, micronuclei, FISH, mother-children pairs, susceptibility  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Effects of the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (MeIQx) on human lymphocyte DNA in diabetic and non-diabetic population sub-groups: an assessment using the Comet Assay. Susceptibility in human lymphocytes to MeIQx23

Natalie Wyatt, Christine Kelly,Vincenzo Fontana, Domenico Franco Merlo, Donald Whitelaw, Diana Anderson

Abstract. Aims. 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (MeIQx) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HAs) in cooked food, and has been subjected to numerous toxicological procedures. Our aim was to assess the extent of DNA damage induced by MeIQx in lymphocytes in the alkaline Comet assay, and to compare various population sub-groups. Materials and methods. The alkaline Comet assay was used to investigate lymphocytes from 63 individuals (diabetic and non-diabetic, different ethnicities, sexes, ages, diets, etc) in vitro. Results. No statistically significant differences in susceptibility to DNA damage were observed between subject covariates using linear regression (multivariate analysis) techniques.  However,  using  non-parametric  data  analysis,  statistically  significant differences were seen between groups above and below 45 years of age. Conclusions. MeIQx produced highly statistically significant, yet relatively low levels of alkali labile sites, and single strand breaks in DNA in lymphocytes. There were no differences in susceptibility in population sub-groups to this dietary compound.

Keywords:   Heterocyclic   amines:   2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline, MeIQx, Comet Assay, susceptibility  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Spondyloarthritis – associated HLA-B phenotypes in northeastern Romania population

Venera Vasilica Vasilca, Elena Rezuş, Petru Cianga, Florin Zugun – Eloae, E. Carasevici

Abstract. Aim: The aim of our survey was to identify spondyloarthritis – associated to HLA -B phenotypes in the population from north-eastern part of Romania. Genetic (HLA or non-HLA genes) and infectious factors are involved in determining spondyloarthritis susceptibility and severity. The most frequent association is with HLA-B27 antigen, but the extent of association of this antigen with spondyloarthritis depends on the ethnical and geographical context of the population investigated. Patients and method: HLA-B antigens were determined using the CDC-NIH (complement- dependent- cytotoxicity- National Institute of Health) assay. We compared the frequency of HLA-B antigens expression in the study group, consisting of 40 spondyloarthritis patients (35 with ankylosing spondilitis) and the control group, including 100 healthy people. Results and conclusions: HLA-B27, HLA-B7 and HLA-B35 antigens were expressed more frequently in patients with spondyloarthritis compared to controls. The difference was statistically significant for HLA-B27 and HLA-B7 antigens (p = 0.009 and p = 0.041). Although HLA-B35 was present in 31.4% of the patients it did not involve a significant risk for developing ankylosing spondilitis compared to controls (p = 0.445).

Key words: spondiloarthritis, HLA and non HLA genes, HLA-B27 antigen, susceptibility Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

The main sources of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in milk processing plants

Luminiţa Minea, Oana Drug, Cristina Câmpeanu, Marieta Vasilov, Doina Bucşă, Daniela Mircea,Cecilia Gafencu, Lămâiţa Puiu-Berizinţu, Manuela Cibi

Abstract: The zoonotic Listeria monocytogenes is mainly transmitted to human trough the food-borne route. This bacterium is often found in the environment of food processing plants. In the period 2002-2004 it was studied the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes. in 9 dairy processing plants in 5 counties of Moldova territory. The aim of the study was to identify the major sources and route for the dairy products contamination. Among the 196 analysed samples of dairy products, 20,4% were identified as being contaminated with Listeria spp., from which 3.57% with Listeria monocytogenes. The highest frequency of Listeria monocytogenes contamination was registered in raw milk (10.53%) and brining maturated cheeses (9.67%). There were analyzed 254 surface swabs. In 29.92% of samples it was noticed the presence of Listeria spp, from which Listeria monocytogenes in 6.3%, especially in the raw milk reception area (8.7%) The examination of working persons revealed that Listeria monocytogenes was most frequently isolated from feces comparing with nasal secretions and hands. This study indicates that Listeria monocytogenes is commonly in the dairy industrial environment including food handlers. Correct disinfection and hygiene will prevent or at least diminish cross-contamination of the food-products.

Key words: dairy-products, sources, food processing, environment, Listeria monocytogenes Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Cytogenetic and respiratory changes in the occupational exposure by ionizing radiation

Irina Anca Popescu, Doina Havârneanu, Iulia Roman, Doina Popa, Irina Alexandrescu

Abstract. Aim. The study was aimed to investigate the respiratory/cytological and cytogenetic changes in subjects at risk of occupational ionizing radiation by new national recommendations and other sensitive methods. Material and methods. There were investigated 30 subjects, 18 females – 60%, from diagnostic nuclear medicine/radiotherapy and radiochemistry laboratory with a mean exposure length of 14.2±6.8 years to gamma radiation. They were investigated by: physical, E.N.T and pulmonary function exams, as hematological tests for blood cells` count and morphology, cytological exams in both sputum and oral exfoliated cells. Cytogenetic investigation consisting in micronuclei (MN) test in peripheral lymphocytes culture cells was performed in all subjects as well as individual dosimetry. Results. There were diagnosed allergic rhinitis (20%) and contact dermatitis (11.1%) at radiopharmaceuticals preparation and use, without any impairment of lung function. In 8.3% Co-therapy subjects there were diagnosed chronic rhinitis, correlated with under 10 years of gamma-rays exposure (p<0.05). Hematological effects were of lymphopenia positively correlated with very long-term radiation exposure. In 6.6% cases were revealed numerical disorders of MN in peripheral lymphocytes and 16.6% subjects had associated structural lymphocytes damages significant correlated with a high exposure level (p<0.001). Incidence of high MN number in oral exfoliated cells correlated both in blood in 3.3 % subjects. Sputum cytology was of type I and II in 80%, respectively 16.6% cases with 1 case of MN presence. Individual dosimetry showed admitted legal values. Conclusions. Staff involved in the use of ionizing radiation, recently monitored in Romania, seem to have an unquestionable respiratory carcinogenic risk, even at low ionizing radiation doses. MN test in oral mucous exfoliated cells, concomitant in peripheral lymphocytes cultures is of much specificity in occupational ionizing radiation assay and correlates in our study with the exposure levels.

Key words: ionizing radiation, gamma emitters, occupational exposure, respiratory/ cytological and effects, cytogenetic exam  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Cervical Cancer – etiology, prevention, intervention and therapy

William W. Au

Abstract. Cervical cancer (CC) is the second leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality around the world. The development of CC involves major factors as the infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), estrogen imbalance, high sexual activities and cigarette smoking. Knowledge of the categories of risk factors is used to develop prevention strategies for CC, of major interest being the metabolism of environmental chemicals that contain carcinogens, such as in cigarette smoking. The most important strategy could be the reduction of the ackuired risk factors to CC such as modification of sexual activities in order to reduce infection with high risk HPV and quitting the cigarette smoking habit. Implementation of these modification need to be adjusted according local population, taking into account the different impact of risk factors to different population, as our research has shown. The development of vaccine to prevent infection and therefore CC is a major world-wide effort.

Key words: cervical cancer, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), carcinogens,cigarete smoke-specific DNA, oxidation reaction.   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Tumour angiogenesis, as a predictor in cervix carcinoma

R. Pandeli, L.G. Cozma, C. Anton, A. Negura

Abstract. Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading causes of female death worldwide due to cancer. The aim of this study is to correlate tumour angiogenesis expressed   as microvessels density (MD) with proliferative activity. Clinical data were obtained from case notes. Materials and methods: Paraffin-embedded samples from 36   patients with cervical carcinoma    were    assessed    for    pattern,    Ki    67    and    CD34    expression    in immunohistochemical analyse. Biotinylated secondary antibodies and the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex were applied according to the manufacturer`s instructions (LSAB2 kit, DAKO, Denmark). Target retrieval solution was used . Results and Conclusions: Microvessels density (MD) is an important parameter predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) and mean survival time.MD was significantly correlated   with proliferation index ( KI67) and offers the possibility to individualize treatment in patients with highly vascularised tumours in early clinical stages.

Key words: Cervical carcinoma, microvessel density, proliferating index.  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Survey of primary care physician’s attitudes on communicable disease surveillance in Iasi district

Roxana Alexandrescu, Angela Romaniuc

Abstract. A survey based on a confidential questionnaire addressed to one doctor from every primary health care centre from Iasi district. The GPs’ attitudes in surveillance of certain communicable diseases and their opinions on the existing system were investigated. The results were compared with an objective evaluation of the same diseases based on eight criteria. In this study, GPs were more interested in surveillance of severe diseases, with or without high incidence (i.e. tuberculosis, hepatitis, HIV-infection or sexually transmitted diseases) and less interested in diseases which are not specific to this study area (West Nile infection) or those having rare occurrence or being eliminated as a result of the vaccination (pertussis and respectively diphtheria). The same diseases were found on the top of the list resulted from the analysis per criteria. Some demographic characteristics (i.e. location of the practice, age of the doctor or proportion of the children in the assisted population) influenced the GPs’ choices they made in this exercise on epidemiological surveillance of communicable diseases.

Key words: communicable diseases, survey, Iasi district   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Agricultural Safety and Health

Arthur L. Frank

Abstract. Worldwide some seventy percent of all workers are engaged in agriculture. While there are differences between developed and developing countries, there are similarities as to the hazards faced, and as the developing world uses more farm related chemicals and more equipment hazards seen in the developed countries will be seen more frequently in developing countries. Much of the risk of agricultural work can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures.

Key words: agriculture, health, hazard Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Book Review

 

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