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JOURNAL OF

PREVENTIVE

MEDICINE

                 ISSN: 1582-5388

 

 

 

 

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Living with goals

Elena Lungu

The exercise of writing goals and objectives helps to focus how the activity and vision will be achieved. Goals are specific and measurable components. Meeting them, mean that the program is successful and the vision achieved. For each goal, there is a list of objectives that must be achieved in order to reach the goal.

Millennium development goals are the most recent statement of commitment towards health and human development (1). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), adopted by the United Nations in 2000, provide an opportunity for action in order to improve global health. They place health at a central issue of development and establish goals at a global level, linking developed and developing countries through clear, reciprocal obligations (2). FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Health patterns and determinants

 

Evaluation of lipid parameters, homocysteine, adhesion molecules and carotid intima-media thickness in children from families with circulatory system diseases history

Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska

Abstract. Aim: The evaluation of lipid parameters, homocysteine, soluble adhesion molecules in the blood serum and the thickness of common carotid artery wall in children from families with diagnosed risk factors of atherosclerosis. Material and methods: The study included 18 children (8 girls and 10 boys) aged 2-3 years and their parents from families with circulatory system disease in their history. The control group was composed of 16 children (8 girls and 8 boys) aged 2-3 years from families without that risk. In all of the subjects concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol and its fractions: LDL, VLDL, HDL and of apolipoproteins (apo-AI, apo-B), lipoprotein (a), homocysteine as well as of sICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1), sVCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) and sE-selectin in the blood serum were determined. The intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement was made with ultrasonographic method in children and their parents from families with positive history and in children from families with negative history. Results: The concentration of triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) had the highest value in the blood serum of the children from the families with risk factors of atherosclerosis as compared to the levels of the children from families without that risk and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). The evaluation of the relationship between the IMT and lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, homocysteine and soluble adhesion molecules in children from families with risk of cardiac ischaemia and in children from control group did not confirm any significant statistically correlations. The statistically significant positive correlation was confirmed between IMT and total cholesterol in mothers and between IMT and apo-B in fathers from families with positive history. Conclusion: The significant increase in the concentrations of triglycerides, VLDL and lipoprotein (a) in children with positive family history of atherosclerosis risk indicates that this group is particularly exposed to early atherosclerotic changes. We are planning to continue the research in this group of children in order to find the atherosclerosis risk factors.

Key words: lipids, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, adhesion molecules, IMT, atherosclerosis risk factors FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Age standardized mortality rates by occupational classes and causes of death in Cluj Napoca

Ligia Făt, A. Cocrlă, S. Ţigan

Abstract: A cohort mortality study was completed using details from death records and occupations of 2893 persons who died in the city of Cluj Napoca in the year 2002. The level of mortality by occupational class was expressed by Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) with national death rates by 15-year age group as the standard. Each occupation has been assigned to one Social Class according to the British Classification of the Social Classes in 6 different categories. Causes of death were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision WHO. The data were collected in the Microsoft Excel program and were statistically analyzed using the EXCEL and EPIINFO programs. The overall mortality of the all social classes were significantly lower than expected, especially in 15-30 and 30-45 groups of age. Significant mortality increase was recorded at ages 45-60 for the social classes IV and V, while the other social classes still show significant mortality deficits. At ages >60 only the social classes I and II show significant mortality deficits, while the social classes III(N) to V have a significant mortality increase with excess mortality. There was a widening difference between social classes I and II and the other social classes for all causes of mortality at ages 4560 and >60. This was particularly marked for social class V. In particular, for specific causes of death, at ages 15-30, the SMR was higher in social classes IV and V. The values of SMR increase at ages 30-45, with the highest values in the same social classes IV and V for all selected causes. A similar pattern of increasing mortality with declining social class was clearly demonstrated for each of the selected causes at ages 45-60 with a big difference in mortality between the top and the bottom of the social class scale. For all selected causes there was a sharp step in the gradient between classes IV and V and the other classes. At ages >60 this sharp step appears between class I and II and the other classes.

Keywords: age-standardized mortality rates, social classes, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, cancer FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Patient dose from conventional diagnostic radiology procedures in Serbia and Montenegro

Olivera Ciraj, Srpko Marković, Duko Koutić

Abstract. The objective was to assess the patient doses for most frequent X-ray examinations in Serbia and Montenegro. A total 491 procedures for 11 different examination categories were analyzed. Using X-ray tube output data, the entrance surface dose for each plane radiography was calculated, as well as the effective dose for each patient. Except for chest PA examination, all estimated doses are less than stated reference levels for plane film examinations. For fluoroscopy examinations, the total kerma-area product was measured and the contributions from fluoroscopy and radiography were assessed. The study of kerma-area product reference doses confirms that dose level for complex fluoroscopy investigations are closely related to technique and individual patient variation, in terms of fluoroscopy time and number of radiography exposures. Survey data are aimed to help in development of national quality control and radiation protection programme for medical exposures.

Key words: X-rays, diagnostic radiology, entrance surface dose, effective dose, optimisation FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Cultural and biochemical characteristics of Acinetobacter spp. strains isolated from hospital units

Sofia Constantiniu, Angela Romaniuc, Luminiţa Smaranda Iancu, Raluca Filimon, Iuliana Taraşi

Abstract. The A. baumanii and A. lwoffii strains, isolated from clinical and environment samples in hospital units, were investigated from the biochemical characteristics and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agent points of view. The nonfermenter, Gram-negative coccobacilli were classified in A. baumanii and A. lwoffii species on the basis of the catalase positive, oxidase negative, nonmotility, the fermentative/oxidative test and utilization of nutritive substrates. The percentages of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents varied according to the class of antimicrobial drugs. Only 16.6% of strains were sensitive to ampicillin, 25% to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, gentamicin and kanamycin. Most of the strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and to imipenem (83.3% and 91.6% respectively).

Key-words: Acinetobacter, strains, biochemical characteristics, susceptibility, antibiotics FULL TEXT.PDF

 

In vitro expansion of Listeria monocytogenes - reactive T lymphocyte subsets in humans - a flow-cytometry approach

Mihaela Zlei, Octăviţa Ailiesei, E. Carasevici

Abstract. The incidence of human listeriosis is sporadic, but we previously demonstrated that T lymphocytes with reactivity to Listeria monocytogenes are with a high frequency in healthy individuals. As kinetics of specific expansion within CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments is particular to a certain pathogen, we attempted to describe the peculiarities which define the T cell reactivity to L. monocytogenes in humans. Our results demonstrated that, although the proliferative response of the two categories of T cells was broadly synchronized, there was a striking difference in the magnitude of the two types of response, when compared. The differential maintenance of the antilisteric memory T cell subsets in the periphery, suggested by our study, generated a set of alternative issues which are discussed below.

Key words: listeria, humans, CD4/CD8 T cells, proliferation, flow-cytometry, CFSE FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Nonspecific immunological aspects related to silicosis

O. Persecă, A. Cocrlă

Abstract. The aim of the study is to analyse the profile of the non-specific systemic immune response in a group of subjects with silicosis, that have variable opacities profusion on standard chest X-ray, and to try an estimate of the immune aggression in silicosis, to find a possible association of the humoral immunological parameters with the silicosis evolution stages as a criteria for the disease progression. A group of 68 male patients with occupational exposure to crystalline silica was investigated, compared with a control group, 35 male healthy subjects, non-exposed. Humoral immunity parameters, IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 complement and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were determined using immunochemical methods. It was observed that immunoglobulin levels presented a polyclonal increase. C3 complement levels were within reference values. CIC presented elevated mean values two fold higher for the late stages of silicosis. The obtained data show a hyperreactivity of the humoral mediated immunity in silicosis, but these parameters could not be used as predictive criteria for the disease progression.

Key words: silicosis, humoral immunity FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Flowcytometric evidence of DNA ploidy in human breast cancer

Dorina Munteanu, Mihaela Zlei, Octăviţa Ailiesei, Camelia Chifu, C. Diaconu, E. Carasevici

Abstract. Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy that affect women. Tumor proliferation can be monitored by measuring DNA synthesis using flow cytometry which provides rapid and precise analysis of large numbers of cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA ploidy in breast cancer and its relationship to other classical clinico-pathological parameters (age, tumor size, histological type, grade of cellular differentiation, lymph node status). This study was initiated in September of 2003 and continued until April of 2004. A number of 30 patients diagnosed with mammary carcinoma and subjected to surgery at the III-rd Surgical Clinic of the Sf. Spiridon Hospital were taken into consideration.. None of the patients were subjected to chemo- or radio-therapy prior to surgery. Cell cycle analyses were performed with fresh tumour sample and normal tissue surrounding the tumour. Data were analysed by Modfit (Verity Software House, USA). A number of 12 cases (40%) were cytometrically diploid (DNA index, DI = 1.00), whereas 18 (60%) were nondiploid tumors. In these latter cases, 16 (53.33%) were simple aneuploid and 2 (6.67%) were tetraploid. When aneuploid and tetraploid cases were analyzed as one group, a statistical correlation was evidenced between DNA ploidy and tumor size (p=0.01). Our study indicated that DNA ploidy could be an important factor for estimating the degree of genomic instability which may be reflected by the aggressiveness of the tumor.

Key words: ploidy, flowcytometry, breast cancer FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Dermatoglyphic research in ophthalmic disorders

Ana Ţarcă

Abstract. The present paper consists of a study on dermatoglyphics pathology on a lot of 200 patients, blind or suffering from other severe ophthalmic disorders (100 men and 100 women) from Moldavia, on the basis of 400 digital palmary impressions. We could say that the high level of sight affection, going up to totally losing sight, is correlated with an ample and significant pathological load in the digital dermatoglyphic picture, but especially in the palmary one of the affected people, suggestively illustrated by a large sphere of abnormalities with deep clinical significance. Present in high percentages, both in men and women and on both palms, many of these abnormalities were reported in other genetic or teratological affections as well, excepting the disposing of the papilar ridges from the palm's Thenar, shaped as a dense or very dense network. The frequency was 41% in our study population, far from the reference sample (5.0%). With some reserves and until new researches, we consider that this abnormality might be specific to severe ocular diseases and the responsible gene could be placed on the X chromosome. This could be explained by its more than double frequency in women compared to men (58.50% and respectively 23.50%).

Key words: dermatoglyphics, blind people, ocular affections, abnormalities or distortions FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Methanol poisoning risk of aspartanic containing-cooling drinks consumers

Codruţa Petrişor, J. Mth

Abstract. Methanol, the chemical compound with very noxious effects on human organism, is included in food-stuffs and pharmaceutical products. Thus, the risk of poisoning by methanol exists by the consumption of products with sugar substituted by aspartame (food additive E951) because it occurs promptly by aspartame hydrolysis in physiological condition. Considering the above reasons, we have proposed the methanol dosage in the distillate of cooling beverages from the light group (including aspartame) and the results correlation with their aspartame concentrations. The chromatografic method was used in order to separate the aspartame and the distillation for methanol separation. Both for methanol and aspartame dosage, spectrophotometric methods were utilized. The aspartame and methanol concentrations determined in our study are higher than those reported by the international organizations such as Food & Drugs Administration and Nutrasweet (FDA) and this is why the authors consider the necessity of population warning about the health risks associated with the current ingestion of aspartame containing - products. Taking into account that aspartame is quite cheap and it has a sweetening power of 200 times higher than sugar, its use persists in over than 9000 products, despite the 92 neurological, ophthalmic and immunological symptoms reported by FDA in 1993.

Key words: methanol, aspartame, sweetening food additive FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Dental health

 

Evaluation of calcium concentration in solution - in vitro study of fluoride action on dental enamel

Monica Păruş, Şt. Lăcătuşu, I. Dănilă, Lucia Brlean, Carmen Păduraru

Abstract. In the present study the mineral loss/gain (ΔCa) in dental enamel during de-/ remineralization process, depending on used fluoride concentration, were measured in vitro in pH cycling conditions. 20 sound premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were divided in 4 subgroups. Artificial lesions were created on each of them. They were all subject to a pH cycling regimen for 2 weeks. During the pH cycling regimen each of the 4 subgroups received different treatment: Placebo paste, fluoride tooth paste (1440 ppm F), fluoride gel (12,000 ppm F), and rinsing solution (227 ppm F). Calcium concentration in de-/remineralization solution at the beginning and at the end of the study was determined using the spectrometer with atomic absorption. The relative succession of the fluoride containing products in terms of efficiency was established to be: fluoride tooth paste ≥ fluoride rinse > fluoride gel.

Key words: fluoride, calcium, dental enamel, prevention FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Book review 1 2

 

News 1 2 3

 

Biography of editorial board

 

Abstracts THE SECOND ROMANIAN-GERMAN SYMPOSIUM ON OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE