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JOURNAL OF

PREVENTIVE

MEDICINE

                 ISSN: 1582-5388

 

 

 

 

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Editorial

 

Prostate cancer early detection - a public health perspective

Elena Lungu

There continue to be major public health challenges arising from the increasing tendency of cancer burden in Europe. This increase of the cancer disease number can be partly attributed to the improvement of medical technology, accumulating knowledge and new discovered tools in the domain. Cancer remains the second cause of death in Europe and prostate cancer is the third cause of death in men, after pulmonary and colorectal cancer. The highest incidences have been reported in North America and Northern Europe and the lowest in South Asia. In the US incidence and mortality are substantially higher among African-American in all ages.   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Health Patterns and Determinants

 

Electric and magnetic fields exposure and cardiovascular system response in some occupational settings

R. Dănulescu, C. Goiceanu, Eugenia Dănulescu, Micaela Mărgineanu, Carmen Croitoru, Gh. Bălăceanu

Abstract: Aim: To reveal the cardiovascular (CV) system response to occupational exposure to low levels of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study (first step) for a two years cohort study has been done. Exposure evaluation comprised magnetic flux density and electric fields intensity measurements as well as ergonomic analysis. Health status assessment included detailed occupational anamnesis, clinical and biochemical examinations, computerized ECG and CV function tests. Results and discussion: We have studied 58 subjects occupationally exposed in electric transform and transport facilities (electricians) and 89 electric train drivers. We have used 93 matched care controls. The measured ELF fields had magnetic flux densities of 1.8-34.5mT for electricians and 0.8-18mT for train drivers. The intensities of electric fields ranged between 1.5kV/m and 32kV/m for electricians and between 25V/m and 0.5 kV/m for electric train drivers. The measured values did not exceed general accepted permissible levels. Arrhytmias were found at 20.2% of the train drivers vs. 8.1% in controls (OR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.14-8.76) as well as in 20.7% of the electricians (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.08-9.77). Conduction disturbances were found in 16.8% of the train drivers vs. 5.4% in controls (OR=3.57, 95% CI: 1.15-13.06) as well as in 36.2% of the electricians vs. 5.4% in controls (OR=9.99, 95% CI: 3.28-35.90). It is to be mentioned the difference between electricians and drivers: OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.21-6.51. Myocardial ischemia changes were found in 33.7% of the train drivers vs. 8.6% in controls (OR=5.4, 95% CI: 2.18-5.84) as well as at 32.8% of the electricians (OR=5.18, 95% CI: 1.93-14.24). Conclusions: The study of CV effects in ELF fields exposure, revealed significantly frequent ECG changes: arrhytmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial ischemia changes. The ELF fields’ occupational exposure seems to be a CV risk factor.  

Key words: Electric and magnetic fields, cardiovascular system, ECG changes   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Radiological impact assessment on behalf of oil/gas industry

Elena Botezatu, C. Grecea

Abstract. Aim: to assess the radiological impact of oil and gas industry on the environment and population. Material and Methods: Since 1999 we made environmental monitoring of radioactivity in the surrounding of six oil fields in Bacău and Brăila districts. The ground and surface water samples originating from oil areas and the formation water samples arising from oil wells, water injection wells and treating stations were analysed for their radium-226 content. Results and discussion: Radium-226 concentrations from 0.005 Bq/l up to more 10 Bq/l were found in the formation water samples. In production equipment, we found the highest concentrations of radium reaching up to 9000 Bq/kg in scale and much lower (300 Bq/kg) in sludge. Measurements in soil and vegetation had clearly shown somewhat higher local activity values for radium-226 content related to accidental discharges of oil-field brines. Conclusion: From the radiological point of view, the situation does not pose any immediate concern, but the high radium-226 content of oil field formation waters could lead to environmental pollution.

Key words: radioactivity, natural radionuclides, oil and gas industry Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Age – related macular degeneration: biochemical aspects

Irina Popovici, Oana Darabă, F.D. Petrariu

Abstract. Aim: to determine the level of antioxidant enzymes from patient with the age macular degeneration (ARMD), cataract or both ARMD – cataract. Material and methods:  the patients were diagnosed in the Ophtalmological Clinic from University Clinic No. 1 ”Sf. SpiridonIaşi. We studied the antioxidant system superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in order to establish a correlation between these enzymes and the occurrence of ARMD and cataract. The patients with systemic diseases such as: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipemia, and also with other ocular diseases were excluded. Results and discussion: in the group of patients diagnosed with ARMD superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase values were statistically significant decreased (p<0.01), compared with the control group. For the patients diagnosed with ARMD and cataract, GPx activity was significantly decreased compared with the control group. Conclusions: our study showed that the lower levels of blood natural antioxidant enzymes are related to higher incidence of ARMD or cataract and to the association ARMD and cataract.

Key words: macular degeneration, cataract, antioxidant enzymes   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Clinical implications in the dermatoglyphic picture of an endogamous population in Moldavia

Ana Ţarcă

Abstract. Objectives: The paper constitutes an ample study on digital dermatoglyphics, from a pathological perspective. Material and methods: Study population was represented by 200 subjects (100 men and 100 women) of all ages, coming from an endogamous rural locality - the village of Butea, county of Iaşi and there were used 400 dermatoglyphic files. It was noted that the high level of endogamy within the community - as illustrated by an index which, oscillated along the 20th century between 72% and 86% - had an outcome in the digital dermatoglyphic picture, in terms of pathological pattern. It assumes the presence of some significant anomalies with multiple and severe clinical implications which - at the level of the group - attain percent values quite close, equal or even higher than those recorded in communities with sekelary infantile encephalopathies (IEP), epilepsy, autism, ocular diseases (OD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Therefore, the presence of above mentioned diseases is justified in the pathological pattern of the study population. Results and discussion: The digital dermatoglyphics anomalies, both in men and women, especially in the formers ones and on both hands, mainly on the left ones referred to: the increased frequency on fingers for whorls (as accompanied by a more reduced one for loops), for the radiality of the digital structures, for the racketoid type loops and for the bilateral and individual monomorphism, all peculiarities through which the population under study was close to the dermatoglyphics patient of the collectivities with various congenital and hereditary maladies, and sensibly different from that of the Romanian population, and Moldavian one, particularly. Conclusions: many of the carriers of grave malformative stigmats are apparently healthy somato-physically therefore the malformative stigmats of digital dermatoglyphic can indicate the risk of the disease and of the possible of the population’s health condition.

Key words: digital dermatoglyphics, distortions, anomalies, endogamy Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Reproductive effects of the fungicide thiram. Epidemiological and experimental studies

Eugenia Dănulescu, Irina Alexandrescu, Brigitte Scutaru, Stela Simirad, R. Dănulescu

Abstract: Aim: To assess the effects of chronical exposure to thiram on the female reproductive function by comparative approach of some epidemiological and experimental aspects. Material and methods: Five years epidemiological cohort study on 132 women occupationally exposed to thiram, in the synthesis industry, were compared to matched controls. Exposure evaluation by GC measurements of thiram in workplaces air and biotoxicological tests, too. Fertility questionnaires were used. The experiment studied thiram effects on fertility as well as genotoxic, embriotoxic and teratogenic potential of thiram in chronic experiments on Wistar female rats by using three doses. Results and discussion: High concentrations of thiram in the workplaces air, and important levels of its metabolite in urine were found. The epidemiological research has showed among the exposed women a significant decrease of the fertility, a higher frequency of spontaneous abortions (OR=3.52, 95% CI: 2.25-5.50), and a significantly increased risk of congenital malformations (OR=11.57, 95% CI: 2.13-66.86). The mutagenetic investigations indicated a significant increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations (p=0.004) and of micronuclei (p=0.01). In chronic experimental administration, the highest dose (1/3 LD50 ) determined a significant increase of the tardive resorbtion rate (p=0.004) and also a high proportion of major malformations (p=0.0001); the medium dose (1/9 LD50 ) and the low dose (1/27 LD50 ) generated a high rate of foetal loss. These results are confirmed by high rates of structural chromosomal aberrations and also micronucleus high rates. Conclusions: Epidemiological and experimental studies support the hypothesis that high exposure to thiram determines a significant fertility decrease and the qualitative impairment of offspring.

Key words: thiram, occupational exposure, experiments, reproductive function  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Fatigue at workers exposed to jute dust, wood dust, chemicals and office workers

Cristina Cordoneanu, I. Grinea, R. Brănişteanu, Mădălina Bohosievici, V. Cazuc

Abstract. Aim: Screening study was focused on the assessment of fatigue in workers exposes to organic dust (jute and wood) and chemicals. Material end methods: The group exposed to jute dust consisted in 110 workers (98 females) in the following workplaces: squashing, carding, laminating, spinning, twisting, starching, rolling, where there are: fibers and dust of jute, noise, adverse microclimate (at starching). The group exposed at wood dust consisted in 57 workers (33 females), in workplaces of manual and mechanical brush sections, where there are fibers and dust of wood (species: oak, beech tree, fir-tree, lime-tree, poplar, nut-tree, cherry-tree, ash-tree). The group exposed to chemicals (organic solvents and dyes) consisted in 56 workers (53 females) in the following workplaces: finishing and dying sections. Control group consisted in 92 (35 females) office workers. Results and discussion: mean values for age was 39.6±9 years in the investigated groups; mean total work length was 20±8 years. Multidimensional checklist individual strength (CIS20R) questionnaire with 20 items self reported questionnaire that referred to fatigue experienced during the previous two weeks has been administered. It consisted of four dimensions: the subjective feeling of fatigue, and motivation reduction, activity diminution and concentration reduction. By adding the four dimensions a CIS total score can be calculated. Higher scores indicate a higher degree of fatigue, more concentration problems, reduced motivation and less activity. Statistical differences were noted in exposed groups vs. controls (p <0.001). Total scores (%) were: 76.53 for workers exposed to jute dust, 75.38 for workers exposed to wood dust, 83.22 for workers exposed to chemicals, 44.1 in controls. Test sensibility: 72.59% (in workers exposed to jute dust), 57.95% (in workers exposed to wood dust), 59.34% (in workers exposed to chemicals). In the absence of gold standard for fatigue, CIS were able to discriminate adequately between fatigued and non-fatigued employees in occupational exposure to organic dust (jute and wood), chemicals and office workers. Conclusions: Differences of subscales of fatigue (dimensions of fatigability) were noted by categories of exposure (levels and noxious agents).

Key words: fatigue, jute, wood, chemicals, occupational exposure   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Health Economics

 

Health economics and preventive medicine. A new beginning for Romania

L. Druguş

Abstract. This article is a reaction against the old mentality that disconsidered the economic thinking as a normal and inescapable part of medical activity and of preventive medicine. In order to facilitate this acceptance I offered a new definition of economics as “combining means in order to attain a certain end”. The most important and often the most ignored means in attaining specific ends is human being itself. Health is a purpose which can not be achieved without a personal involvement. In preventive medicine, the relationship doctor – patient is more important than in curative one. Patient is more valuable in preventive medicine thon in therapy and the economic domain in prevention is a primordial one.

Key-words: health economics, preventive medicine Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Statistical methods in health economics

D. Boldureanu

Abstract. In order to stimulate the improvement of the quality of health management, there are used economic, juridical, sociological or ethical methods. The involvement of economic theory in health care systems is made by a series of tools, judgments and models to help the medical decision making process. This paper offers an example of such method that combines economics, statistics and mathematics techniques. The Romanian medical education system needs to use such methods giving a real support in the optimization of the resource allocation to a greater extent.

Keywords: costs, benefits, economics, health, Cost-Benefit Analysis Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Dental Health

 

Demographic aspects of dental dysplasia in Romania

Marinela Păsăreanu, Adriana Bălan, A. Maxim

Abstract. Aim: to monitor the prevalence and distribution of the developmental defects of enamel by the help of DDE index in preschool and school communities from Romanian counties. Results and discussion: The prevalence of the developmental defects of enamel according to the modified DDE index is of 18%. The age and sex group distribution shows a higher frequency in girls from aged 15-18 compared to boys (24.42% vs 21.11%). Analyzing the structure according to the code of the defect there is noted a high frequency of opacities (10.93%), followed by hypoplasias (6.01%). Conclusions: Our research has proved that there are no statistically significant differences of distribution in children with enamel defects according to sex at any age.

Key words: child, DDE-index, developmental defects of enamel  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

Considerations regarding the up-date in topical fluoridation in pediatric dentistry

Adriana Bălan, Marinela Păsăreanu, A. Maxim, Iohana Roşu, C. Rotariu, Dana Cristiana Maxim

Abstract. For 50 years, it was generally believed that the major caries – preventive effect of fluoride was pre-eruptive. But there is a general agreement today among scientists in the field of fluoride research that the caries-preventive and the caries controlling effects of fluorides are almost exclusively post-eruptive ,as topical fluoridation ,because fluoride reduces the demineralisation effects of organic acids produced by the cariogenic bacteria in the dental plaque and accelerates remineralisation after the attack.

Key-words: fluoride, cariogenic bacteria, reminelization Ü FULL TEXT.PDF

 

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