C O N T E N T S
There continue to be major public health challenges arising from the increasing
tendency of cancer burden
Health Patterns and Determinants
R. Dănulescu, C. Goiceanu, Eugenia Dănulescu, Micaela Mărgineanu, Carmen Croitoru, Gh. Bălăceanu
Abstract: Aim: To reveal the cardiovascular (CV) system response to occupational exposure to low levels of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study (first step) for a two years cohort study has been done. Exposure evaluation comprised magnetic flux density and electric fields intensity measurements as well as ergonomic analysis. Health status assessment included detailed occupational anamnesis, clinical and biochemical examinations, computerized ECG and CV function tests. Results and discussion: We have studied 58 subjects occupationally exposed in electric transform and transport facilities (electricians) and 89 electric train drivers. We have used 93 matched care controls. The measured ELF fields had magnetic flux densities of 1.8-34.5mT for electricians and 0.8-18mT for train drivers. The intensities of electric fields ranged between 1.5kV/m and 32kV/m for electricians and between 25V/m and 0.5 kV/m for electric train drivers. The measured values did not exceed general accepted permissible levels. Arrhytmias were found at 20.2% of the train drivers vs. 8.1% in controls (OR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.14-8.76) as well as in 20.7% of the electricians (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.08-9.77). Conduction disturbances were found in 16.8% of the train drivers vs. 5.4% in controls (OR=3.57, 95% CI: 1.15-13.06) as well as in 36.2% of the electricians vs. 5.4% in controls (OR=9.99, 95% CI: 3.28-35.90). It is to be mentioned the difference between electricians and drivers: OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.21-6.51. Myocardial ischemia changes were found in 33.7% of the train drivers vs. 8.6% in controls (OR=5.4, 95% CI: 2.18-5.84) as well as at 32.8% of the electricians (OR=5.18, 95% CI: 1.93-14.24). Conclusions: The study of CV effects in ELF fields exposure, revealed significantly frequent ECG changes: arrhytmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial ischemia changes. The ELF fields’ occupational exposure seems to be a CV risk factor.
Elena Botezatu, C. Grecea
Abstract. Aim: to assess the radiological impact of oil and gas industry on
the environment and population. Material
and Methods: Since 1999 we made environmental monitoring of radioactivity
in the surrounding of six oil fields in
Irina Popovici, Oana Darabă, F.D. Petrariu
Abstract. Aim: to determine the level of antioxidant enzymes from patient with the
age macular degeneration (ARMD), cataract or both ARMD –
cataract. Material and methods: the patients were diagnosed in
the Ophtalmological Clinic from University Clinic
No. 1 ”Sf. Spiridon”
Objectives: The paper
constitutes an ample study
on digital dermatoglyphics,
from a pathological
perspective. Material and methods: Study population was represented by 200 subjects (100 men and 100 women)
of all ages, coming from an endogamous rural locality - the
Eugenia Dănulescu, Irina Alexandrescu, Brigitte Scutaru, Stela Simirad, R. Dănulescu
Abstract: Aim: To assess the effects of chronical exposure to thiram on the female reproductive function by comparative approach of some epidemiological and experimental aspects. Material and methods: Five years epidemiological cohort study on 132 women occupationally exposed to thiram, in the synthesis industry, were compared to matched controls. Exposure evaluation by GC measurements of thiram in workplaces air and biotoxicological tests, too. Fertility questionnaires were used. The experiment studied thiram effects on fertility as well as genotoxic, embriotoxic and teratogenic potential of thiram in chronic experiments on Wistar female rats by using three doses. Results and discussion: High concentrations of thiram in the workplaces air, and important levels of its metabolite in urine were found. The epidemiological research has showed among the exposed women a significant decrease of the fertility, a higher frequency of spontaneous abortions (OR=3.52, 95% CI: 2.25-5.50), and a significantly increased risk of congenital malformations (OR=11.57, 95% CI: 2.13-66.86). The mutagenetic investigations indicated a significant increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations (p=0.004) and of micronuclei (p=0.01). In chronic experimental administration, the highest dose (1/3 LD50 ) determined a significant increase of the tardive resorbtion rate (p=0.004) and also a high proportion of major malformations (p=0.0001); the medium dose (1/9 LD50 ) and the low dose (1/27 LD50 ) generated a high rate of foetal loss. These results are confirmed by high rates of structural chromosomal aberrations and also micronucleus high rates. Conclusions: Epidemiological and experimental studies support the hypothesis that high exposure to thiram determines a significant fertility decrease and the qualitative impairment of offspring.
Abstract. Aim: Screening study was focused on the assessment of fatigue in workers exposes to organic dust (jute and wood) and chemicals. Material end methods: The group exposed to jute dust consisted in 110 workers (98 females) in the following workplaces: squashing, carding, laminating, spinning, twisting, starching, rolling, where there are: fibers and dust of jute, noise, adverse microclimate (at starching). The group exposed at wood dust consisted in 57 workers (33 females), in workplaces of manual and mechanical brush sections, where there are fibers and dust of wood (species: oak, beech tree, fir-tree, lime-tree, poplar, nut-tree, cherry-tree, ash-tree). The group exposed to chemicals (organic solvents and dyes) consisted in 56 workers (53 females) in the following workplaces: finishing and dying sections. Control group consisted in 92 (35 females) office workers. Results and discussion: mean values for age was 39.6±9 years in the investigated groups; mean total work length was 20±8 years. Multidimensional checklist individual strength (CIS20R) questionnaire with 20 items self reported questionnaire that referred to fatigue experienced during the previous two weeks has been administered. It consisted of four dimensions: the subjective feeling of fatigue, and motivation reduction, activity diminution and concentration reduction. By adding the four dimensions a CIS total score can be calculated. Higher scores indicate a higher degree of fatigue, more concentration problems, reduced motivation and less activity. Statistical differences were noted in exposed groups vs. controls (p <0.001). Total scores (%) were: 76.53 for workers exposed to jute dust, 75.38 for workers exposed to wood dust, 83.22 for workers exposed to chemicals, 44.1 in controls. Test sensibility: 72.59% (in workers exposed to jute dust), 57.95% (in workers exposed to wood dust), 59.34% (in workers exposed to chemicals). In the absence of gold standard for fatigue, CIS were able to discriminate adequately between fatigued and non-fatigued employees in occupational exposure to organic dust (jute and wood), chemicals and office workers. Conclusions: Differences of subscales of fatigue (dimensions of fatigability) were noted by categories of exposure (levels and noxious agents).
Abstract. This article is a reaction against the old mentality that disconsidered the economic thinking as a normal and inescapable part of medical activity and of preventive medicine. In order to facilitate this acceptance I offered a new definition of economics as “combining means in order to attain a certain end”. The most important and often the most ignored means in attaining specific ends is human being itself. Health is a purpose which can not be achieved without a personal involvement. In preventive medicine, the relationship doctor – patient is more important than in curative one. Patient is more valuable in preventive medicine thon in therapy and the economic domain in prevention is a primordial one.
Abstract. In order to stimulate the improvement of the quality of health management, there are used economic, juridical, sociological or ethical methods. The involvement of economic theory in health care systems is made by a series of tools, judgments and models to help the medical decision making process. This paper offers an example of such method that combines economics, statistics and mathematics techniques. The Romanian medical education system needs to use such methods giving a real support in the optimization of the resource allocation to a greater extent.
Marinela Păsăreanu, Adriana Bălan, A. Maxim
Abstract. Aim: to monitor the prevalence and distribution of the developmental defects of enamel by the help of DDE index in preschool and school communities from Romanian counties. Results and discussion: The prevalence of the developmental defects of enamel according to the modified DDE index is of 18%. The age and sex group distribution shows a higher frequency in girls from aged 15-18 compared to boys (24.42% vs 21.11%). Analyzing the structure according to the code of the defect there is noted a high frequency of opacities (10.93%), followed by hypoplasias (6.01%). Conclusions: Our research has proved that there are no statistically significant differences of distribution in children with enamel defects according to sex at any age.
Adriana Bălan, Marinela Păsăreanu, A. Maxim, Iohana Roşu, C. Rotariu, Dana Cristiana Maxim
Abstract. For 50 years, it was generally believed that the major caries – preventive effect of fluoride was pre-eruptive. But there is a general agreement today among scientists in the field of fluoride research that the caries-preventive and the caries controlling effects of fluorides are almost exclusively post-eruptive ,as topical fluoridation ,because fluoride reduces the demineralisation effects of organic acids produced by the cariogenic bacteria in the dental plaque and accelerates remineralisation after the attack.