C O N T E N T S
Marieta Vasilov, Oana Drug, Maria Tetraru, I. Iorga, Doina Dobrescu, L. Stafie
Abstract. An irritant pollution generated by different sources even at moderate level justifies the investigation of early effects both on health and life quality of the resident population. The authors present the results of two epidemiological studies carried out during 1999-2000; the first one about the health effects of pollution around a representative antibiotics factory and the second one of pollution generated by a controlled waste landfill. Morbidity data collected by our usual information system have been used. The relationship between the health status and exposure have been investigated on samples of 86 schoolchildren from the antibiotics factory surrounding area and 135 from the municipal waste landfill neighborhood area versus 88 and respectively, 473 unexposed subjects. Although, the results doesn’t reveal the presence of early symptoms or of a specific pathology, the quality of life seems deeply damaged; though there are different sources of pollution in this areas, all investigated persons specified antibiotics factory and waste landfill as the cause of discomfort. Therefore, an investigation on the discomfort was carried out on these children and a representative sample of adults subjects (262) living in surrounding area of waste landfill.
Ana Ţarcă, C. Barabolski
Abstract. The authors present the results of a study on digitopalmary dermatoglyphies of patients diagnosed with infantile autism. 137 subjects (67 boys and 70 girls) with 274 finger and palmar prints, residents in country’s eastern territory have been investigated. The dermatoglyphic digito-palmary picture revealed a broad range of anomalies or distortions (associated with severe clinical features) both as the frequency of some of the digital or palmary characteristics and their distribution by sex, laterality and fingers, which differentiate significantly these people from the normal population. Occurring both in boys and girls, on both hands but with priority on the left ones, these distortions contribute to a more complete knowledge of the dermatoglyphic nomogram on the basis of which infantile autism could be diagnosed early. The present study is the first one – at national level – devoted to such aspects.
Elena Botezatu, Olga Iacob
Abstract. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of workers in two industries due to work activities involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). Our research was intended to provide a better knowledge of working practices and to provide sufficient meaningful information regarding the estimated exposures to workers in these industries due to NORM, focusing in particular on the regulatory aspects relating to naturally occurring radioactive materials. The workers involved in the production of energy in Coal Fired Power Plants (CFPPs) and in fertilizers production in phosphate fertilizer plant (PFP) are subject to radiation exposure through internal and external pathways. In CFPPs, the inhalation of dusts containing naturally occurring radionuclides was found to be the most significant exposure pathway. The highest risk was associated with the intake via inhalation of thorium-232, which contributes up to 41 % to the annual effective dose. Exposures to individuals resulting from inhalation of radon and thoron progeny represent only 5%, respectively 1.5% from the whole dose. In PFP, the terrestrial gamma external radiation delivers the highest contribution to overall exposure of workers from natural sources (42%), followed by radon along with its decay products (36%). Inhalation of dusts containing naturally occurring radionuclides was found to be an important exposure pathway (22%). For workers employed in the CFPPs, the higher risk is associated with the intake (via inhalation) of thorium-232, while in PFP the higher risk is associated with the intake (via inhalation) of radium-226 and uranium-238.
The results show that occupational radiation doses for some workers reach relevant levels compared to protection limits in the nuclear industry. These individual dose levels therefore should be carefully measured, controlled and registered. We consider that in PFP there are work activities that must be subject to control. Optimization techniques to reduce individual and collective doses in the phosphate production should be established.
Epidemiology: communicable diseases
Sofia Constantiniu, Angela Romaniuc, Cecilia Durnea, Rodica Chiriac, Elena Rezus, Mariana Mutica, Oana Constantiniu
Abstract. The presence of the specific antibodies for some enterobacteria - Yersinia, Salmonella and Shigella and Chlamydia, was investigated in patients with reactive arthritis and other rheumatoid diseases. The antibacterial antibodies in the diagnosis titers were found in 71 out of 489 patients: 54 of them were positive for enterobacteria and 17 for Chlamydia. From all positive patients 46 (64.7%) had clinical diagnosis of reactive arthritis, 20 (28.1%) of ankylosing spondilytis, each 2 (2.8%) of sacroilitis and Reiter’s syndrome and 1 (1.3%) with other disease. The most serology positive cases were of middle-age (31-50 years). There were no significant differences between sexes among serology positive cases.
Olivia Dorneanu, Iuliana Popovici, Lucian Boiculese, Irina Popovici, Daniela Bosnea
Abstract. Superficial Candida infections are very common throughout the world. Clotrimazole may be administered topically in the treatment of superficial candidiasis. We have tested the anti-fungal activity of eight 1% clotrimazole pharmaceutics (solutions, suspensions, ointments), against 3 Candida strains (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, Candida spp.), using the diffusion method of susceptibility testing to anti-microbial drugs. In order to compare the anti‑fungal activity of the 3 groups of pharmaceutics (solutions/ suspensions/ ointments) the ANOVA statistical test was performed. The activity of clotrimazole significantly decreased from solutions to suspensions and ointments. There were no significant differences in anti-Candida activity among the same type of pharmaceutical form; excepting the activity of ointments against C. albicans. Anti-fungal activity of clotrimazole is better expressed in solutions, comparing with suspensions and ointments.
Lucian Vasile Boiculese, Olivia Simona Dorneanu
Abstract. Usually people think and learn creating similarities between facts, processes and events. The multiple value (fuzzy) logic expresses how we reason with vague rules. A fuzzy system is made up of rules that maps inputs to the outputs. Multivalued logic systems cope with the lack of information related to the belonging to a multitude. This type of incertitude is present in biological processes. Fuzzy systems are suited in classifications, modeling and controlling tasks with applications in microbiology. This paper describes classification of mycobacteria by two methods: fuzzy logic and classical selection (using a metric distance).
Brigitte Scutaru, Mirela Ghiţescu, Doina Hăvârneanu, A. Maftei, Mihaela Romanic
Abstract. The present study describes the influence of combined exposure to organic solvents on their urinary excretion. Wistar male rats were repeatedly exposed to toluene (TO), xylene (XY) or acetone (AC), individually and simultaneously, or to a mixture of TO and benzene (BE), by intraperitoneal injection (1 injection/week for 12 weeks). Each solvent and mixture was administered in two doses: the high (H) dose was equally to the current occupational exposure limit, the low (L) one was half of the high dose. The rats were divided into 12 groups as follows: (1) 850 (TOH) and (2) 425 (TOL) mg/kg toluene; (3) 1500 (XYH) and (4) 750 (XYL) mg/kg xylene; (5) 1500 (ACH) and (6) 750 (ACL) mg/kg acetone; (7) 1200 (MIH) and (8) 600 (MIL) mg/kg mixture (M) I (30 % TO, 30% XY, 40 % AC); (9) 500 (MIIH) and (10) 250 (MIIL) mg/kg mixture II (85 % TO, 15 % BE); (11) control oil (CO) (0.5 ml oil/100 g body weight) and (12) unexposed control (C). Urine samples were collected for 24 h after the last administration. Major metabolites of TO and XY (hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid, respectively) and urinary AC were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The relationship exposure–excretion was examined by simple regression analysis. The correlation of the solvent exposure doses with the concentrations of the corresponding metabolites was close for TO (r = 0.97; p < 0.001) and XY (r = 0.95; p < 0.05) both in single and in combined administration. Compared with single treatment, simultaneous exposure resulted in higher amounts of excreted hippuric acid (195 %) and methylhippuric acid (200 %) in urine in the immediate post–exposure period. The excretion of hippuric acid in urine from rats co-injected with mixture II was not modified at both doses. These results suggest metabolic interactions between TO, XY and AC that alter initially the excretion of both metabolites and ultimately the biological monitoring of an exposure to a combination of solvents. No apparent interactive effects between TO and BE have been noted.
Key words: organic solvents mixtures, metabolic aspects, experimental study Ü FULL TEXT.PDF
Daniela Constantinescu, Carmen Cozmei, Mirela Ghitescu, Doina Havarneanu, Eugen Carasevici
Abstract. Measuring the effect of various chemical substances on murine spleen and thymus is an usual method used in immunotoxicology. Apoptosis is a form of cellular death which can be triggered by toxic insults. The characteristic morphological alterations of apoptotic cells were assessed using acridine orange, a DNA-intercalating dye. We compared thymus and spleen apoptotic index (percentage of apoptotic cells) in rats chronically exposed to various organic solvents: toluene, xylene, acetone, a mixture containing 30% toluene, 30% xylene and 40% acetone and a mixture containing 15% benzene and 85% toluene. All the solvents used in the experiment induced apoptosis in splenic and thymic cellular suspensions. Acetone, either alone or in mixture, was the most powerful apoptosis inducer.
Liliana Padureanu, Carmen Cozmei , Adriana Sorete–Arbore, Doina Gramada, Silvia Arama, Traian Mihaescu, Eugen Carasevici
Abstract. In the present study we evaluated the in vitro lymphocyte specific blastogenesis in response to stimulation with PPD (purified-proteine-derivate) in tuberculosis patients using the flow-cytometry method based on carbofluorescein diacetate succinimydil ester (CFSE) dye dilution technique. 14 individuals (7 PPD+ healthy donors and 7 tuberculosis patients) were studied. Mononuclear cells from peripheral blood or pleural fluid were initially stained with 1.25 μM CFSE, then they were cultivated with or without 20 μg/ml PPD for up to 7 days. At indicated time points the cells were collected, stained with anti-CD3 Cy Chrome and analyzed on a FACSCalibur flow cytometer. The results showed a poor reactivity of peripheral lymphocytes from tuberculosis patients as compared to that recorded in healthy, PPD-reactive persons, and to the values observed in the proliferative response of cells from pleural effusion.
Abstracts „The first romanian-german symposium on occupational medicine”