ISSN: 1582-5388





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Public health

Survey of diagnostic paediatric radiology and the resulted collective effective dose (2000 y)

Cornelia Diaconescu, Olga Iacob

Abstract. The purpose of our study was to update the annual frequency of x-ray examinations and the pattern of paediatric radiology in 2000 year. Also, to assess in terms of effective dose the magnitude of pediatric patient exposure during conventional x-ray examinations, selected by their high frequencies or their relatively high doses delivered to patient. The annual effective doses from all medical examinations for the average pediatric patients are as follows: 0.85 msv for 0 year old, 0.53 msv for 1 year old, 0.56 msv for 5 year old, 0.72 msv for 10 year old and 0.74 msv for 15 year old. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated at 872 mansv, with the largest contribution of pelvis and hip examinations. However, this value could be much larger because the ct annual use increased in 2000 y up to 3.1% of total examinations from a negligible one of 0.1% in previous survey.

Key words: paediatric radiology, X-ray examinations, effective dose, collective effective dose FULL TEXT.PDF


The map of indoor radon concentrations in northeastern Romania

C. Grecea, Olga Iacob

Abstract. The radon concentrations have been measured in detached houses and blocks of flats from cities and villages in Moldavia areas, between 1998 and 2002. The radon activity in detached houses is mainly dependent on the activity of radium in subjacent ground and surrounding soil and the radioactivity of building materials. The map of radon concentration in houses in connection with the map of radium activity in soil shows us a constant ratio between the radon and radium activity. Only 2% among all houses in northeastern territory of Romania exceed the level of 200/Bq/m3 for radon concentration.

Key words: indoor radon, equivalent equilibrium concentrations, soil radium activity FULL TEXT.PDF


Drug expenditure in a tertiary hospital

Odetta Duma

Abstract. In conditions of increasing health care costs and reduced rate of economic growth, hospitals are the main consumers within the health system. The present paper represents a two years (2000-2001) detailed analysis of drug expenditure per unit of activity (bed, hospital day and inpatient) in a tertiary hospital with special departments of nephrology and urology. Each hospital department participated in an internal comparison and some of these data were used in a comparison with other hospitals of the same level from Iaşi city. Intensive care appeared as the most expensive department with an annually increase of drug expenditure per unit of activity.

Key words: tertiary hospital, drug expenditure, unit of care FULL TEXT.PDF


Prematurity and low weight at birth: risk factors for defects of enamel development

Marinela Păsăreanu

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel defects in two school communities using SCOTS Index and to correlate the results to two potential risk factors: prematurity and low weight at birth. Mixed dentition status was assessed at 121 children and the prevalence highest value of enamel defects was 9%. A significantly strong prevalence (p< 0.001) of the defects of enamel development and of the analyzed potential risk factors was noticed. Further studies are needed to clarify whether achieving near optimum intra-uterine mineral retention would decrease the prevalence of subsequent enamel defects in infants born prematurely.

Key words: primary and permanent dentision, SCOTS index, defects of enamel development, prematurely FULL TEXT.PDF


Occupational medicine


Immunoenzymatic serum analysis of atrazine exposure among manufacturing workers

Brigitte Scutaru, Carmen Cozmei, V. Cazuc, Doina Popa, B. Hock

Abstract. This study assesses the feasibility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of atrazine in serum samples collected from twenty workers engaged in technical atrazine dust formulating and bagging processes. An assay was developed with the middle of the test (IC 50) at 0.080.02 mg/L, a limit of detection of about 100 ng/L and the coefficients of variation up to 8 %. Serum atrazine levels were interpreted taking into account the airborne concentrations of atrazine in the workplace atmosphere. The immunoenzymatic method itself is convenient, inexpensive and easy to use. It was, therefore, concluded that serum sampling of atrazine exposure among worker populations is a feasible biomonitoring method.

Key words: atrazine, immunoassay, serum samples, occupational exposure FULL TEXT.PDF


P53 immunocytochemical detection and occupational exposure to atrazine

Carmen Cozmei, Brigitte Scutaru, Daniela Constantinescu, Doina Popa, Eugen Carasevici

Abstract. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of the herbicide atrazine on peripheral mononuclear cells on occupationally exposed individuals in terms of their possible DNA damage effect and to determine whether p53 protein can serve as a biomarker for this exposure or not. 19 workers employed by Chimcomplex Company Borzesti (Romania) in the atrazine production unit were examined and p53 immunocytochemistry was performed. The results showed that 68.4% of the workers were positive for p53 protein and these data were interpreted as a proof indicating that immunocytochemical detection of the p53 protein expression is a feasible means for monitoring atrazine exposure.

Key words: p53, immunocytochemistry, monocytes, atrazine FULL TEXT.PDF


Epidemiology: communicable diseases


Assessment of vaccine efficacy for diseases included in the national immunization program for preschool children

Angela Romaniuc, Anca Nistor, Cecilia Durnea

Abstract OBJECTIVE: The periodical evaluation of the population specific protection against the diseases included in the National Immunization Program (NIP) is necessary in view of the strengthening strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed in 2001 y on a representative sample of 714 children aged less than 5 years old. The determination of antibody levels was made through the indirect ELISA (Diasorin kits) taking 0.1 IU/ml as basic level for diphteria and tetanus antitoxine, 10 IU/l for the HBs antibodies, and higher than 40 AU/ml for measles and pertussis antibodies.

RESULTS: Tetanus sero-protection was found in 96% of children (95% CI: 94.697.4) with an average geometrical mean of tetanus antitoxine antibodies of 1.49 IU/ml. The protection level of the diphteria antitoxine antibodies was about 10% lower than the level of antitetanus sero-protection of 87.4% (95% CI: 86.1-88.7). The children vaccinated with DTP3 have a medium level of seroprotection, while those who received 4 doses of vaccine have 91.8%. The Bordetella pertussis antibodies were present at a protector level in 76.1% children (95% CI: 72.9-79.2). The humoral antimeasles immunity reaches an average of 55.6% protected children (95% CI: 52.1-59.2) for a level of seropositive values of 62%. The percentage of the children protected against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had an average value of 59.5% (95% CI: 57.1-63.1) while the seropositive value was estimated to be 71.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The specific immunity to tetanus in the children aged less than 5 years corresponds to the goal of the National Immunization Program, but it is lower for diphteria, measles and HBV indicating susceptibility to these diseases.

Key words: vaccination, prevalence, postvaccinal immunity FULL TEXT.PDF


Study on specific IgG avidity as a tool for recent primary Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosis

Elena Crucerescu, Diana Rodica Lovin

Abstract. Toxoplasma gondii, protozoan with worldwide distribution, can cause life-threatening disease for the unborn child when maternal infection is acquired during pregnancy. The accurate dating of maternal toxoplasmosis is essential in order to assess the risk of subsequent congenital infection. Specific Toxoplasma IgG of low avidity is considered to be a good mean for recent primary Toxoplasma infection diagnostic made on a single serum. During a period of 18 months a group of 1441 pregnant women residents in northeastern Romania were screened for Toxoplasma antibodies. 33 of them, identified as being at risk for recent primary infection, were tested for specific IgG avidity. Only one third of the women with positive specific IgM had recent primary toxoplasmosis confirmed by the low level of the specific IgG avidity. For another group of 17 patients diagnosed with lymphadenopathy caused by recent primary toxoplasmosis the low or borderline values of IgG avidity confirmed the diagnosis.

Key words: pregnant women, toxoplasmosis, IgG avidity FULL TEXT.PDF


Experiment research


Chemical contaminants in drinking water: mutagenic and toxic effects

Gabriela Mancaş, Terttu Vartiainen, Paku Rantakokko, Tinca Navrotescu, Rodica Diaconu, Dan Mancaş, Diana Diaconu

Abstract. This study aimed to estimate the hazards associated with the use of chlorination in a water-work where some episodes of chemical pollution were recorded in the recent years. The methodological approach consisted in twice a year sampling of large volumes of raw and chlorinated water then processed to concentrate the non-volatile organic chemicals. The analyses of water samples indicated high levels of organic matter in chlorinated water, up to 21.17g/l. A complex mixture of chemicals in each of both extracts has been identified by GC-MS technique. Higher levels of 3-chloro-4(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a strong mutagen compound, in chlorinated water extract in comparison with the corresponding raw water extract of samples of 2000 year summer have been measured for the first time in Romania. The mutagenicity test Ames results of water extracts were in agreement with the corresponding MX levels. Acute and sub-acute experiments on young fish exposed to gradually increased concentrations of chemicals in water, for different exposure periods have indicated higher lethality percentage for exposure in chlorinated water compared with raw water. A dose-effect relationship between the concentrating factors of chemicals and the fish lethalities was also established, statistically significant for acute experiments.

Key words: water chemical contamination, chlorination, effect assessment, MX, fish, experimental exposure FULL TEXT.PDF