C O N T E N T S
Nicolae Tudor Racoveanu
Abstract. Health Technology (HT) or Medical Technology is at present one of the important reasons of inequity in Health Care visible in our world as demonstrated very clearly by the UNSCEAR 2000. Data of this document demonstrate that less than 25% of the world population has reasonable access to diagnostic radiology and that situation is not improving but on the contrary, deteriorating. The main reason are the high cost of Health Devices which are not designed with the view to serve the world at large. The solution to this situation is to change the actual policy imposed by the industry and to adopt the approach used in the field of "essential drugs", which means to design appropriate HT devices responding to the following criteria: 1- scientifically and technically valid-producing better outcome; 2-reliable and reproducible; 3- affordable by those who need the HT; 4-clear, unambiguous in functions; 5-multidisciplinary in concept, maintenance and utilization; 6-periodically revised and improved; 7- adequately documented and certified. With such approach supported by the users and producers of HT it will be possible to offer to the majority of those deprived today the opportunity to see the improvement of the health status they deserve.
Cornelia Diaconescu, Olga Iacob
radiology is the major contributor to population exposure in
Olga Iacob, Cornelia Diaconescu
Abstract. This survey represents a update of the Romanian population exposure from in vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, focused on the year 2000. The new estimates are:† 3.2 for the average annual number of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures per 1000 population, 12.7 mSv a-1 for the average effective dose per patient undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, 910 man Sv for the annual collective effective dose and 40 mSv for the annual effective dose per capita. As in previous surveys conducted during 1990 and 1995, the most important examination both, by frequency and contribution to annual collective dose, was the thyroid investigation. Although the frequency of the 99mTc use has increased since the last survey (1995) by 44 per cent, 131I is still the radionuclide of choice for more than 50% of thyroid investigations, imparting continuously high doses to patients.
Roy M. Buchan, Pabitra Rijal, Delvin Sandfort, Tom Keefe
Abstract. The main objectives of this research were to determine what aerosols were present by taking total dust (TD) samples and thoracic particulate mass samples (TPM) on farms and in grain elevators. Cascade impactors were used to characterize size distribution of dust and endotoxins at each site. Total dust concentrations on farms had a geometric mean 3.4 mg/m3 and 3.3 mg/m3 in elevators. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations for the TPM were 2.4 mg/m3 on farms and 1.0 mg/m3 in elevators. Endotoxin concentrations as geometric means were alarming at 3,175 EU/m3 total dust and 983 EU/m3 by TPM on farms.† In elevators, the GM concentrations for endotoxins were 2,534 EU/m3† total dust and 526 EU/m3 by TPM. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) for endotoxins on farms was 8.0 mm and 6.5 mm in elevators. The paired t-test was applied to the log radios of endotoxin concentrations (EU/m3) and dust concentrations (mg/m3), for paired samples of the TD and TPM. A higher content of endotoxin was associated with TPM for farms but not elevators. It was concluded that althought the TPM fraction (dust) may represents a small part of the total mass, the aerosol size is optimum for deposition in the lungís tubular airways, and might cause airway inflammation due to the endotoxins. The TPM fraction of corn dust represents the best measure of exposure with regard to the potential development of long-term airways inflammation, and the potential of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among chronically exposed workers. All endotoxin concentrations were well above recommended exposure levels of several researchers familiar with endotoxin health effects.
Environmental issues are becoming increasingly complex, however,
multidisciplinary co-operation may yield unprecedented opportunities for
innovative solutions. Two extreme and opposing cases are used to illustrate
the potential and pitfalls of this approach for prevention. Metal mining is one old industry which presents a
clear and present danger to man and the environment. During the 1998 calamity
Control banding Ė a practical approach to judging control methods for chemicals††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †
Abstract There is widespread
concern over the risks, real or feared, from the rapidly increasing inventory
of chemicals in commercial use. Many users of chemicals rely for their
information on their supplier and safety data sheets (SDS).† These summaries of properties are difficult
for the average user to convert into practical control action.† It is possible to take the classification
data (the Risk Phrases) which are globally harmonised and link these directly
to control advice given a knowledge of the process and purpose of the
chemical - information immediately available to many.† A level of control can be introduced, which
although lacking the specific assurance of a professional hygiene and
toxicological assessment does present sensible action.† This approach has received widespread
support by employers, workers and professional hygienists in the
Abstract. Occupational Hygiene plays an important role
in many Occupational Health Safety and The Environment projects, but the
efficiency of this activity is strongly influenced by factors exogenous to
the profession. This paper undertakes a partial† analysis of the Occupational Hygiene (OH)
Key words: Occupational Hygiene, hazard identification, hazard control†† ‹ FULL TEXT.PDF
Rodica Stănescu Dumitru, Carmen Ruxandra Artenie, Eleonora Cerbu, Vali Constantinescu
Abstract. The present study aimed to follow up the levels of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, in workersí urine of tobacco industry, using a reliable gas chromatographic method. The limit of detection for both nicotine and cotinine was 10† ng ml-1. We consider that the urinary nicotine and cotinine levels might be served as biological monitoring index for estimation of the exposure level for the non-smoking workers in tobacco industry.
Elena-Ana Păuncu, Liliana SÓrb, Carmen Oros, Marius Fernolendt, Gabriela Papoe, Mioara Bocşa
The study have been
performed a new established factory near
Cristina Cordoneanu, Ioan Grinea, Radu Brănişteanu, Raul Hreniuc
Abstract. The screening type study emphasizes the part played by axillary temperature measurement as a first step in ODTS diagnosis in workers exposes to organic dust (jute). An exposed group of 110 workers (98 females): age = 39 years, working duration = 12 years, exposed to jute, has been examined. Workplaces of: squashing; carding; laminating; spinning; twisting; starching; rolling were investigated. Noxious agents were: fibers and dust of jute; noise; adverse microclimate. Workers exposed to wood and chemical noxious agents (57 persons each) were also investigated. There were 5 examinations: (1) Monday ; (2) Monday ; (3) Friday ; (4) Friday ; (5) consultation. The control group consisted of 68 subjects. The percentages of the temperature measurements of 37o C and over, and respectively the averaged values were: jute = 42% (36.83o C); wood = 32.98% (36.74o C); chemicals = 25.26% (36.64o C); controls = 9.31% (36.53o C). The statistical significance was: jute vs. control group (χ2 = 70.27; p = .0000; OR = 7.05); jute vs. chemicals (χ2 = 22.03; p= .0000; Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.14; Relative Risk (RR) = 1.66). Significant statistical changes of the phenomenon are noticed lasting during the work time, both daily and weekly, at workers exposed to jute: Monday 2.00 p.m. vs. Monday 6.00 a.m.: χ2 = 27.25; p = .0000; OR = 4.73; RR = 2.56; Friday 2.00 p.m. vs. Monday 6.00 a.m.: χ2 = 15.48; p = .0000; OR = 3.28; RR = 2.16; Monday 2.00 p.m. vs. Friday 6.00 a.m.: χ2 = 14.40; p = .0001; OR = 2.98; RR = 1.83; Friday 2.00 p.m. vs. Friday 6.00 a.m.: χ2 = 6.11; p = .01; OR = 2.07; RR = 1.54. The testís sensibility (jute vs. control) = 92.4%. Important steps are to be taken for creating basic, regular attitudes of occupational hygiene in order to prevent ODTS.
History of medicine
The influence of external environment on human body was noticed since ancient times.† Hyppocrate made some written observations on the influence of outer world (climate, geographical area, waters, wind, diet, social system) upon the human being, in other words of macrocosms on the microcosmos.
During the past centuries, subsequent to industrial revolution, development of agriculture, diversification of crafts and occurrence of new social classes, the diseases caused by noxious agents, inadequate diet or consumption of altered food and physical exhaustion due to the long work program of 10-12 hours appeared.† ‹ FULL TEXT.PDF
The 2001 Annual Conference of ISEE was hosted by the Institute of Epidemiology, GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
purpose of the meeting was to attract participants from