ISSN: 1582-5388





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Public  health


Population exposure to indoor radon and thoron progeny

Olga Iacob, C.Grecea, O.Capitanu, V.Rascanu, D.Agheorghiesei,

E.Botezatu, S.Ioniţă

Abstract. The goal of our work was to determine the distributions of radon and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings, the magnitude of individual and collective exposures and to assess the potential lung cancer risk. The radon and thoron short-lived decay products concentrations have been measured in 586 typical urban and rural houses, randomly selected from 6 cities and 84 villages in eastern part of Romania. The method used to determine the volumetric activity of 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 212Pb is an active one by pumping a known volume of air through an open-faced high-efficiency filter paper at known flow rate for a certain collection time and counting the deposited activity with a ZnS alpha scintillation counter. Internal exposure due to inhalation of radon and thoron progeny indoors and outdoors has been expressed in terms of effective dose. In dose estimates the conversion coefficients adopted by the UNSCEAR  2000 Report have been used. The values of indoor Equilibrium Equivalent Concentrations of radon and thoron presented a log-normal distribution. The average values of EEC of radon have been of 22.2 Bq m-3 in detached houses and 9.0 Bq m-3 in block of flats and for EEC  of thoron, 1.2 Bq m-3 in detached houses and 0.6 Bq m-3 in block of flats, respectively. The overall annual effective dose of 1.16 mSv and the resultant annual collective effective dose of 6032 manSv might be responsible for 440 life-time radio-induced lung cancers.

Key words: indoor population exposure, radon and thoron progeny, effective dose, lung cancer risk.   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Risk factors involvement in enamel dental displasya         

Marinela Păsăreanu, Corina Florea

Abstract. The extended tooth formative period offers extremely large possibilities for various etiological factors to act. Hereditary, congenitally or acquired factors finally justify the existence of an equally large variety of clinical forms, with psychological and functional impact, sometimes a very serious one on patient. Our goal was to correlate developing defects frequencies to the sex and age of the examined children and to some potential risk factors used in the reference literature: delivery, birth weight, infant feeding between 0-4 months of age and the social-economical conditions. The study was made on 600 subjects of 8-11 year age and the index used to systematize the data, was SCOTS index. The obtained results have pointed out that there are not statistically significant differences in enamel defect distribution versus children sex or age, but there is a strongly significant prevalence of enamel defects using the logistic model of regression of some potentially risk factors such as prematurity, birth weight, nutrition, or family income level.

Key words: primary and mixed dentition, SCOTS index, enamel dysplasia, risk factors  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Dermal prints pathology in Down syndrome                                   

Ana Ţarcă

Abstract. A study of the palmar dermatoglyphics pathology, on a group of 54 mongoloid children (33 boys and 21 girls) in order to know the main malformative stigmata specific to Down syndrome have been set up. A large scale of palmar dermatoglyphic anomalies have been found, most of which were on both hands of patients; they were correlated with a high degree of their somatic, physiological, neuropsychical handicap. The new elements of dermatoglyphic pathology which are added to the other four used so far in the dermatoglyphic diagnosis of Trisomy 21: (LU in Hp; the distal displacement of the triradius t’’, the increase of the adt angle and the transverse palmar sulcus), are able to ensure a greater diagnosis accuracy. The identification of the persons with forms of partial Trisomy 21, in mosaic or through balanced translocation, apparently in good health, but having the risk of transmission of the disease to their offsprings in its full or complete form (accompanied by malformations) could prevent this serious disease.

Key words: dermatoglyphics, Trisomy 21, anomalies  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Occupational medicine


Fever stress and alpha 1 antitrypsin                                                

R.Ionuţ, A.Cocârlă, L.Tefas, Marilena Petran, Anca Cristea, D.Cârstina

Abstract. The behaviour of alpha 1 antitrypsin in fever stress condition had been investigated on a lot of 51 males and females subjects. 76.4% of them had adaptative reaction by increasing the alpha 1 antitrypsin; 23.5% with basal normal values had no significant reaction in the fever phase and only one subject was deficiently in both conditions. The significance of the non-reactive subjects supports discussion about their limited antielastatic capacity in important aggressions, in spite of the normal basal values.

Key words: alpha 1 antitrypsin, fever stress, antiproteasic marker   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Effects of occupational exposure to some irritative pollutants upon the lung function

Eugenia Dănulescu, R.Dănulescu, Brigitte Scutaru, V.Cazuc

Abstract. Aim: To study the occupational exposure effects of some irritative pollutants (IP) upon the pulmonary function, in the cellulose fibres industry. Methods: Cross-sectional occupational study on 117 workers exposed to IP mixtures versus matched controls. IP assessments have been done in the workplaces air. Health status investigations comprised clinical examinations and laboratory tests, as well as computerised assessment of the pulmonary capacities and flows (VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC, FEF0.2-1.2, FEF25-75%, PEF, MEF50%, MEF25%, MEF75%). Results: The IP measurements in the workplaces air showed under TLV values. Health status assessment revealed significant increase of obstructive dysfunction associated with IP occupational exposure (Yate’s c2=57.24 p:0.000000, OR=8.96, 95%CI: 4.98-16.11). In the exposed, 37% of subjects had FEV1 and FEV1/VC in normal limits, the other parameters indicating distal obstructive syndrome (DOS), the majority of cases having more severe obstructions: 41% slight obstructions (SO) and 4.3% moderate obstructions (MO). In the controls 16.4% subjects had DOS, 5.7% SO and 0% MO. The difference between these percentages was also statistically significant (p:0.0000-0.029). Further analysis allowed a more precise diagnosis of the obstruction degree in its early stage, and also showed some useful correlations with the levels of IP. Conclusions: The exposure to irritative pollutants, in occupational settings, could be involved in the impairment of pulmonary function, largely causing obstructive syndromes in the exposed people. The systematic use of pulmonary function testing allows precocious diagnosis and, consequently, adequate prophylactic measures.

Key words: irritative pollutants, computerised pulmonary testing, obstructive impairment, distal obstructive syndrome Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Zirconium pneumoconiosis (Zr)                               

Marilena Petran, Liana Olinici, A.Cocârlă, M.Băiescu, L.Tefas, C.Dumitru

Abstract. The authors describe an interstitial pulmonary fibrosis to a female professionally exposed to zirconium pigments employed in a pottery product factory. Due to the pulmonary radiographic and ct aspects, as well to the absence of other causes generating pulmonary fibrosis there is a suspicion of zirconium pneumoconiosis.

Key words: zirconium, pneumoconiosis, occupational exposure  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF                                                                      


Epidemiology: communicable diseases


Infection with hepatitis C virus a real health problem

Luminiţa Smaranda Iancu

Abstract. The hepatitis c virus (hcv) is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases world-wide and it is a real health problem. The centre for diseases control and prevention (cdc) estimates that only for u.s.a at least 3.9 million people have been infected with hcv as indicated by a positive hcv antibody test. The world health organisation (who) estimates that 170 million people world-wide are infected with hcv. Recently after the hcv discovery in 1989 the diagnosis tests became available. The blood screening introduced in the regional transfusion centres conducted to a dramatic decline of post-transfusional hepatitis. In Romania, the prevalence of anti-hcv (around 4.5%). Before introduction of routine screening was 10 fold higher than in West European countries. For this reason, in our country the size of phenomena is more important. The present paper reviews the major ways of transmission of hcv infection and how we can implement primary and second prevention activities that will reduce the risks for contracting this infection and to reduce the risks for liver and other chronic diseases respectively. The lack of vaccine and the difficulties linked to the efficiency of chronic hepatitis infection due to hcv enforce the role of preventive measures in our needs to reduce the prevalence of infection with this virus.

Key words:Hepatitis C virus, prevention activities, primary prevention, secondary prevention   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Infectious etiology in atherosclerosis – from hypothesis to certainty?

Doina Azoicăi, Luminiţa Smaranda Iancu

Abstract.  Experimental pathological studies and clinical surveys made in order to estimate the atherogenic role of some pathogens underlined the intervention of Cytomegalovirus (1978), Chlamydia pneumoniae (1988) and Helicobacter pylori (1994) in the generation and evolution of the specific vascular injuries. A causal relationship between these microorganisms and atherosclerosis though supported by clinical evidence is limited by  the encountered difficulties both in the evaluation of infectious case history and microbiological diagnosis as well as the unknown prevalence of antibodies owner in general population. In Romania, few prevalence serological screenings for C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and H. pylori have been made due to the high costs and difficult methodologies. The validation of this causality-related hypothesis would allow the orientation of the cardiovascular diseases prevention programmes towards the avoidance or neutralization of the influence both the non-infectious and microbial factors.

Key-words: atherosclerosis, risk factor, infection, seroprevalence  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Isolation of Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum from patients  with pharingitis                                                                                  

Sofia Constantiniu, Micaela Scripcaru, Angela Romaniuc, Mariana Dumbravă, Anca Nistor, Paraschiva Onu

Abstract. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum has been described as a rare etiologic agent in acute pharingotonsilitis in pediatric and young population.Four strains of A. haemolyticum were isolated from throat swabs of  3584 patients (10-26 years ) with acute pharingitis. The samples, collected in January 1997-January 2001, were plated on Mueller-Hinton agar with 10 % sheep blood and incubated 24-48 hours   at 37 °C. In three cases A.haemolyticum was the only one etiologic bacterial agent and in the forth case  association of A.haemolyticum with S.aureus was present. The identification of A.haemolyticum strains was based on  cells and colonies’ morphology, cultural and biochemical characters.

Key-words: Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, isolation, pharingitis.  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Toxoplasmosis risk in eastern Romania                                         

Elena Crucerescu, Diana Lovin

Abstract. Toxoplasma gondii, the obligate intracellular protozoan, infects humans and any other warm-blooded animal. Toxoplasmosis is probably one of the most common human infection and becomes a lifethreatening disease in case of congenital infection or immunodepressed patient. The aim of this study was to estimate toxoplasmosis prevalence among Eastern Romania human population and to emphasize the consequences. The study was performed between 1996 and 1999 in Eastern Romania including pregnant women, newborn children, HIV infected patients, eye disease patients, and lymphadenopathy patients. The following tests were used for serodiagnosis purposes: immunofluorescence assay, 2-mercapto-ethanol agglutination test for Toxoplasma IgG detection, and immunosorbent agglutination assay for Toxoplasma IgM and IgA detection. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence among pregnant women 26 years mean age was 41%, most of them being chronic infections. In the group of apparently healthy women 1.85% were strongly suspected of acute acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. In the group of pregnant women suffering spontaneous abortion in the first period of their pregnancy 4.23% had acute acquired infection. The cord blood screening among newborns noticed 44.5% toxoplasma antibodies prevalence with one case of asymptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis detected. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence among chorioretinitis patients was 68%. Also, 12.8% of studied lymphadenopathies could be attributed to toxoplasmosis. The results confirmed Toxoplasma gondii wide spread in Eastern Romania, and the risk represented by this protozoan for the unborn child and HIV infected patients. A larger serological screening should be taken into consideration in order to diminish the consequences of this infection.

Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, Diagnosis, Prevalence, Congenital infection, HIV Ü FULL TEXT.PDF                             


Experimental research


Low frequency electromagnetic field influence on brain redox balance in the rat                                                     

Dana Baran, Ioana Păduraru, Adelina Şaramet, Elena Petrescu, I.Haulică          

Abstract. The study investigated the effect of light – dark cycle (L:D) alteration on the redox balance in different segments of the white Wistar rat brain. Several animal groups were entrained to 24, 48, 72 hour and 7 day continuous light (L:L), and to 24, 48, 72 hour and 7 day continuous dark (D:D), respectively. Artificial electric light intensity attained 180 ± 20 lx, corresponding to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) of about 60 Hz. Malondialdehyde (thiobarbituric acid reactive species test), superoxide dismutase (Minami method), catalase (Aeby technique modified by Beers and Sizer), glutathione peroxidase (Gross and Buetler method) and reduced glutathione (Buetler technique) were assayed in diencephalon, brain stem and cortex. A differentiated stimulation of monitored oxidative and reducing factors occurred in accordance with L:L or D:D synchronization, its duration and the brain structure focused upon. The results were considered to express the photoneuroimmunoendocrine axis activation equally due to endogenous and exogenous EMF interactions, able to interfere with redox electrochemical processes. A quantal cell clock model is suggested, based on possible estimations of the redox enzymatic system dynamic evolution involving reactive oxygen species generation and unpaired electrons scavenging rate.

Keywords: nyctohemerality, oxidative stress, bioelectromagnetism, radical cell clock  Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


Colorimetric assay of salivary nitrite content                                   

Rodica Diaconu, Marieta Vasilov, Gabriela Mancaş

Abstract. Salivary nitrate/nitrite concentration has often been used as a biomarker of human exposure to nitrate. A spectrophotometric method for estimation of nitrite in saliva is described. Nitrite (NO2-) is determined through formation of a reddish purple azo dye produced at pH 2.0 to 2.5 by coupling diazotized compound with 1-Naphthylamine. The method is suitable for the estimation of 0.25-10 mg/ml. The preservation procedure and deproteinization of saliva sample remove possible errors.

Key words: nitrite in human saliva, spectrophotometric method   Ü FULL TEXT.PDF


History of medicine


The activity of  ”French Medical Mission” in Moldavia during the First World War

Cristina Ionescu

In September 1916, France decided to send a military mission at the special request of Prime Minister Bratianu. Aristide Briand, the French Prime Minister, and Joseph Joffre, the Chief of the French Army Headquarter, entrust this difficult task to professional, brave, duteous, great war experienced men. General Henry Mathias Betrhelot was assigned as their leader and according to the characterization sent to Bucharest he had “exceptional General Staff knowledge combined with modern war practice. Ü FULL TEXT.PDF